Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Tiemann TT, Avila P, Ramirez G, Lascano CE, Kreuzer M, Hess HD. Intestinal disaccharidases of young turkeys: Temporal development and influence of diet composition. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to explain differences among human populations in the capacity to digest lactose in milk. Mace OJ, Affleck J, Patel N, Kellett GL. For example, 75% of the cellulase activity in the GI tract of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis can be assigned to microbial fermentation by protist symbionts in the hind gut, with the remainder accounted for by intrinsic enzymes in the midgut and salivary glands (453); but the cellulase activity in the GI tract of the beetle Tenebrio molitor was unaffected by elimination of the microbiota (174), indicating that the observed microbial fermentation does not make a necessary contribution to cellulose digestion. The pig is surrounded by a layer of skin for the same reason humans' are o support and protect bones and organs. The trade-offs between digestion rate and efficiency in warblers and their ecological implications. All vertebrates apparently lack the capacity to degrade cellulose and related complex polysaccharides of plant cell walls. Ikeda I, Kobayashi M, Hamada T, Tsuda K, Goto H, Imaizumi K, Nozawa A, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T. Heat-epimerized tea catechins rich in gallocatechin gallate and catechin gallate are more effective to inhibit cholesterol absorption than tea catechins rich in epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. All vertebrates have a small intestine, but vary as to whether they possess other compartments such as crop, forestomach, stomach, cecum, and large intestine/colon. Evolutionary physiology. Price DR, Tibbles K, Shigenobu S, Smertenko A, Russell CW, Douglas AE, Fitches E, Gatehouse AM, Gatehouse JA. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying fermentation in these fish, and the nutritional significance of the SCFAs produced. Intestinal development in neonatal calves: Effects of glucocorticoids and dependence on colostrum feeding. Careers, Unable to load your collection due to an error. These animals mature and develop a greater appetite. Walgren RA, Lin JT, Kinne RKH, Walle T. Cellular uptake of dietary flavonoid quercetin 4-beta-glucoside by sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1. (392) used a phylogeny for New World bats (family Phyllostomidae) to analyze the correlation between diet and digestive enzymes in 14 species (Fig. Domestic dogs and other canids are opportunistic carnivores (carnoomnivores) that utilize a varied diet, occasionally including vegetable material; and felids, including the domestic cat, are specialized carnivores adapted to a high-protein/fat diet containing very little carbohydrate. the contents by NLM or the National Institutes of Health. like humans, pigs have multilobed lungs. It is opposite the dorsal side. Cara JB, Moyano FJ, Cardenas S, Fernandez-Diaz C, Yufera M. Assessment of digestive enzyme activities during larval development of white bream. -glucosidases are an important group of glucohydrolases found in the small intestine tissue of mammals, with apical membrane-bound lactase phlorizin hydrolase and broad-specificity cytosolic -glucosidase being the most widely studied, including in humans, rats, and guinea pigs (95, 113, 342). Lysozyme [hydrolyzes peptidoglycan in G(+) bacterial cell walls (. van Soest PJ. Molecular characterization of the first aromatic nutrient transporter from the sodium neurotransmitter symporter family. Hence, small intestine nominal surface area in birds is 36% lower than that in nonflying mammals. The adaptive advantage of pregastric fermentation for very efficient breakdown of the plant polysaccharides is enhanced by rumination (i.e., regurgitation of partially fermented ingesta to the mouth, where it is chewed, and then reswallowed) because this behavior allows the plant material to be subjected to multiple, repeated cycles of mechanical disruption and fermentation, resulting in very efficient breakdown of the plant polysaccharides. However, a deep analysis of the both would reveal the existing difference . Bik EM, Eckburg PB, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Purdom EA, Francois F, Perez-Perez G, Blaser MJ, Relman DA. Linton SM, Greenaway P. A review of feeding and nutrition of herbivorous land crabs: Adaptations to low quality plant diets. The assimilation of bacterial protein by herbivorous birds is perplexing because birds do not seem to have spatial separation of culturing and digestion of microbes. Under conditions of high luminal glucose content, however, GLUT2 in rodents is inserted into the apical membrane, where it mediates the high flux of glucose into the enterocyte (254). Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 protein is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption. Of particular note are the transporters mediating sterol flux across the apical membrane of enterocytes. Piersma T. Energetic bottlenecks and other design constraints in avian annual cycles. Watanabe H, Tokuda G. Cellulolytic systems in insects. McSweeney CS, Palmer B, McNeill DM, Krause DO. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters. Variation in bacterial communities of mammals with diet, analyzed by principal components analysis. Pacha J. Diet-induced epigenetic regulation in vivo of the intestinal fructose transporter Glut5 during development of rat small intestine. There is large variation among foods in both types and amounts of main nutritional substrates (e.g., simple and complex carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), and also variation in composition within each substrate type (e.g., specific bond linkages and chain length differences). Efflux transporters as a novel herbivore countermechanism to plant chemical defenses. Lazo JP, Holt GJ, Arnold CR. Erban T, Hubert J. Digestive function of lysozyme in synanthropic acaridid mites enables utilization of bacteria as a food source. Meissner B, Boll M, Daniel H, Baumeister R. Deletion of the intestinal peptide transporter affects insulin and TOR signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Jongsma MA, Bolter C. The adaptation of insects to plant protease inhibitors. However, overexpression of NPC1L1 in nonenterocyte cells has not yielded cholesterol transport activity, suggesting that additional proteins may be required to reconstitute a fully functional cholesterol transporter. Diet-induced changes in the activity of digestive enzymes in 12-day-old nestling house sparrows (23 days before fledging). Nevertheless, ABCG5/G8 does not function exclusively in relation to cholesterol. Use of the nutrients in bamboo by the red panda (. Proteases (such as pepsins, trypsins, and chymotrypsins) and peptidases (e.g., carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases). Ferreira C, Marana SR, Terra WR. Current understanding of the matching of transporter function to diet composition derives largely from the classic work of Diamond and colleagues (120, 149) conducted on isolated intestine preparations of mice. Digestive responses of temperate birds switched to fruit or insect diets. Cattle and sheep can live on hay and pasture, while pigs must eat grains that can be digested more easily. (1) that overall digestive efficiency should decline, which it did. Whether or not the animal has intrinsic cellulolytic capability, it appears that fermentative symbioses with microbes and fungi are generally important for cellulose degradation in animals (see Section Microbial transformation of digestively-intractable food constituents to compounds that are readily used by the animal). When the microbes are moved with digesta from the rumen into the acidic part of the cow stomach and then to the intestine, cow enzymes digest the protein, enabling the animals to absorb the nitrogen-15 lysine. Dyer J, Al-Rammahi M, Waterfall L, Salmon KS, Geor RJ, Boure L, Edwards GB, Proudman CJ, Shirazi-Beechey SP. Effect of D-glucose on intestinal permeability and its passive absorption in human small intestine in vivo. Studies with colonic epithelial tissue and luminal perfusion experiments point to SCFA/HCO3 exchangers, with evidence for saturation kinetics and competitive inhibition by acetate, butyrate, and propionate, but not lactate (203, 204, 312, 378). 1A of reference (330) and Fig. The caecum has two sections, first a section that has a blind end, where material can not pass though. Orlando PA, Brown JS, Whelan CJ. In mammals, a steep diffusion gradient across the apical membrane is generated by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2)-mediated esterification of cholesterol in the enterocyte (Fig. In contrast, the anthraquinone, emodin, which tends to speed digesta through the gut of humans (137), appears to have the opposite effect on the frugivorous bird the Yellow-vented bulblul, and increases the birds apparent digestive efficiency on emodin-containing fruit (440). They are taken up by NCP1L1 into enterocytes, but they are not esterified by ACAT2 and are eliminated via ABCG5/G8. Lysozyme hydrolyzes the bacterial cell walls and the defensins insert into membranes where they interact with one another to form pores that disrupt membrane function and lead to the death of the bacterial cell (268). Humans have three lobes in the right two in the left. These theoretical distinctions explain our separation of sections of this review devoted to digesters that rely largely on intrinsic enzymes to digest relatively nonrefractory materials in foods and sections devoted to digesters that typically ferment relatively refractory materials with the aid of symbiotic microbes. Sundset et al. Phloem-sap feeding by animals: Problems and solutions. Zhan QL, Zheng SC, Feng QL, Liu L. A midgut-specific chymotrypsin cDNA (SLCTP1) from, Zhang C, Zhou DH, Zheng SC, Liu L, Tao S, Yang L, Hu SN, Feng QL. Niemann-Pick C1 disease gene: Homology to mediators of cholesterol homeostasis. In healthy individuals, dietary phytosterols reduce serum cholesterol levels, probably through their more efficient incorporation than cholesterol into micelles, resulting in reduced cholesterol uptake (223); this is why sitosterol is sold as a functional food. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption. Verri T, Kottra G, Romano A, Tiso N, Peric M, Maffia M, Boll M, Argenton F, Daniel H, Storelli C. Molecular and functional characterisation of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) PEPT1-type peptide transporter. Host-mediated induction of alpha-amylase by larvae of the Mexican bean weevil. Avian species typically have shorter mean retention time of digesta than do similar sized nonflying mammalian species (315). Cloning and functional expression of the first eukaryotic Na+-tryptophan symporter, AgNAT6. (Early reports that peptide transport is Na+-linked are erroneous.) These might include osmotically based mechanisms, which might draw water into the lumen by acting as introduced osmolytes or by receptor-mediated increase in secretion of ions, or by a nonosmotic mechanism such as direct action on motility patterns via receptor-mediated changes in neuromuscular activity [e.g., reference (27)]. Bergerson O, Wool D. The process of adaptation of flour beetles to new environments. Starck JM, Beese K. Structural flexibility of the intestine of Burmese python in response to feeding. For example, IAP-deficient mice have no apparent digestion deficits (337). Lehman RM, Lundgren JG, Petzke LM. Ontogenetic and regional changes in alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and L-proline intestinal transport in guinea pig. Remarkably, the composition of the microbiota and gene expression profile was altered within a single day of transferring the mice from a low-fat diet with high plant polysaccharide content to a high-fat, high-sugar diet (441). Sugar absorption in the intestine: The role of GLUT2. SGLT1 mRNA from references (405, 446). Specific regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters by their dietary substrates. Phylogenetically informed analyses of digestive enzymes in birds have revealed both dietary and phylogenetic influences. In addition, it has exocrine functions of secreting digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate.The digestive enzymes secreted break down (hydrolyse) proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the chyme. (B) Small intestine nominal (smoothbore tube) surface area in omnivorous birds and mammals (same symbols and lines as in A). Slansky F, Scriber JM. These experimental data are consistent with an inference in the above discussion about Table 1 that house sparrow nestlings have only modest spare digestive capacity. Cloning and characterization of an invertebrate type lysozyme from Venerupis philippinarum. Structural flexibility of the digestive system of tetrapods - patterns and processes at the cellular and tissue level. Dierenfeld ES, Hintz HF, Robertson JB, Van Soest PJ, Oftedal OT. Kofuji PYM, Akimoto A, Hosokawa H, Masumoto T. Seasonal changes in proteolytic enzymes of yellowtail. Binder HJ. Digestive kinematics of suspension-feeding bivalves: Modeling and measuring particle-processing in the gut of Potamocorbula amurensis. Integrated analysis of digestive strategy using reactor models has been usefully applied in studies with fish as well (175, 216) but other kinds of models, for example, compartment models, are also useful (90). A second feature that strengthens the analysis is a larger number of species measured by uniform methodology and subjected to phylogenetically informed statistical analyses. Large changes occur in proteins important in processing of carbohydrate, which is the diet component that changes most dramatically (e.g., from lactose to sucrose and starch). Tissue-specific activities of some intestinal enzymes increased by more than 10 times (e.g., sucrase and maltase), and total pancreatic amylase activity increased 100 times between hatch and fledging through a combination of increases in tissue specific activity and pancreas mass (74). Sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily in aphids; from gene prediction to functional characterization. Usnic acid, a secondary metabolite of lichens and its effect on, Pankoke H, Bowers MD, Dobler S. Influence of iridoid glycoside containing host plants on midgut beta-glucosidase activity in a polyphagous caterpillar, Spilosoma virginica Fabricius (Arctiidae). An official website of the United States government. Fish guts as chemical reactors: A model of the alimentary canals of marine herbivorous fishes. The digestive lysozyme of hoatzins has a different genetic origin from that found in colobine monkeys and ruminants. The chick embryo yolk sac membrane expresses nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme genes. Molecular adaptation of, Reid GK, Liutkus M, Bennett A, Robinson SMC, MacDonald B, Page F. Absorption efficiency of blue mussels (. In some species, the relationship between dietary tannin content and reduction in apparent digestibility can be used to increase the accuracy of predictive equations of food digestibility based on food chemical composition (201). After further processing, the chylomicrons are released from the basolateral membrane by exocytosis. Saele et al. 6 minute read. In addition to metabolic differences, the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical differences in the gastrointestinal (G.I.) Typically, the results match option (ii). Struempf HM, Schondube JE, Martinez del Rio C. The cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin does not deter consumption of ripe fruit by cedar waxwings. Ribonucleases, secreted by the exocrine pancreas into the lumen of the small intestine, digest the abundant RNAs of rapidly growing bacteria. Peral MJ, Galvez M, Soria ML, Ilundain AA. [SGLT1 expression has not been found to be influenced by cdx in mammals (405)]. Cant JP, McBride BW, Croom WJ., Jr The regulation of intestinal metabolism and its impact on whole animal energetics. The mismatch between activity and gene expression measurements was partly explained by a nonspecific analytical method, because the whole body is analyzed (the gut of very small larvae is not isolated) and some fish tissues outside the GI tract could have lipase activity. Differential role of vagus nerve in maintaining diurnal gene expression rhythms in the proximal small intestine. 15). Some animals possess a substantial fermentative microbiota that produces SCFAs without a morphologically distinct fermentation chamber. Each bar represents the mean of three independent repeats of the experiment. Transporters involved in glucose and water absorption in the Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae) anterior midgut. Kellett GL, Brot-Laroche E, Mace OJ, Leturque A. Colobine and ruminant lysozymes converged in the amino acid sequences that confer these enzymes their unique pH optima and pepsin resistance. These differences reflect evolutionary adaption to diet, with a lower and more uniform carbohydrate: protein content in the diet of carnivores than omnivores and herbivores.
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